Studies Using Biomarkers
Some of the major datasets that have collected biomarker data include
1. Coronary Artery Risk Development
in Young Adults (CARDIA)
1. Coronary Artery Risk Development
in Young Adults (CARDIA)
CARDIA is designed to increase understanding
of contributors to changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors
during the critical years of transition from adolescence through young
adulthood to middle age. CARDIA was funded initially in 1983 for a five
year cycle that included two rounds of examinations. Contract renewals
have allowed for subsequent re-examinations.
2. Cardiovascular Health Study
The Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS)
is a study of risk factors for development and progression of CHD and
stroke in people aged 65 years and older.
3. The Atherosclerosis Risk in
Communities Study (ARIC)
The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities
Study (ARIC) is a prospective epidemiologic study conducted in four U.S.
communities. ARIC is designed to investigate the etiology and natural
history of atherosclerosis, the etiology of clinical atherosclerotic diseases,
and variation in cardiovascular risk factors, medical care and disease
by race, gender, location, and date.
4. Social Environment and Biomarkers
of Aging Study (SEBAS) in Taiwan
The Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study (SEBAS) provides information regarding the health and well-being of older persons in Taiwan. Taiwan has undergone rapid demographic, social, and economic changes, becoming a highly urbanized and industrial society with a growing population of persons age 65 or older. SEBAS explores the relationship between life challenges and mental and physical health, the impact of social environment on the health and well-being of the elderly, and biological markers of health and stress. The study collected self-reports of physical, psychological, and social well-being, plus extensive clinical data based on medical examinations and laboratory analyses. Examination of health outcomes included chronic illnesses, functional status, psychological well-being, and cognitive function. Questions regarding life challenges focused on perceived stress, economic difficulties, security and safety, and the consequences of a major earthquake. Biological markers were used to identify cardiovascular risk factors, metabolic process measures, immune-system activity, the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis, and sympathetic nervous system activity.
Key Biomarkers in Data: Cortisol, Norepinephrine, Epinephrine,Blood Pressure(BP), Pulse, Total Cholesterol, High Density Lipoprotiens(HDL), Glycoylated Hemoglobin(HgAlc), IL-6, Apoe, Body Mass Index(BMI)- Weight height, Waist-Hip, Albumn,Iron, Hemoglobin, Plasma, DNA, Sodium, Potassium, Bilirubin, Igf-1.
5. English Longitudinal Study
of Ageing (ELSA)
The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing
(ELSA) is about the lives of people in England who are aged 50 and over
(and about their partners, if they are under 50). The study will cover
a broad range of topics such as people's health, economic situation and
quality of life. It will help us learn about how people's experiences
vary and how their circumstances change over time. We plan to visit the
members of the study every two years, and are currently visiting members
for the second time.
6. MacArthur Study of Successful
Since 1996, there has been increasing
interest in how to define, and how to accomplish, what we call "successful"
Key Biomarkers in Data: Cortisol, Norepinephrine, Epinephrine, Blood Pressure, Pulse, Total Cholesterol, HDL, Glycosolated Hemoglobin, IL-6, C-reactive protein, Fibrinogen, ApoE, BMI, Waist-Hop, Lung function, Albumin, Iron, Hemoglobin, Sodium, Potassium, Homocysteine, Vitamins/Antioxidants,Plasma, DNA.
The major objectives of the HEALTH ABC
Study relate to observations that change in body composition in old age,
particularly the increase in body fat and the decline in lean mass and
bone mineral, represent a common pathway by which multiple diseases contribute
to disability. The HEALTH ABC Study can be used to investigate extent
of change in body composition in older men and women, identify clinical
conditions accelerating these changes, and examine the health impact of
these changes on strength, endurance, disability, and weight-related diseases
of old age.
For further information, see the Health ABC website - http://www.nia.nih.gov/research/intramural/edb/healthabc/index.htm
8. Hispanic EPESE 1993-2004
The National Institute on Aging funded
Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Studies of the
Elderly (Hispanic EPESE) is modeled after the design of the Established
Populations For Epidemiologic Studies Of The Elderly, 1981-1993: [East
Boston, Massachusetts, Iowa And Washington Counties, Iowa, New Haven,
Connecticut, And North Central North Carolina] and Established Populations
For Epidemiologic Studies Of The Elderly, 1996-1997: Piedmont Health Survey
Of The Elderly, Fourth In-Person Survey [Durham, Warren, Vance, Granville,
And Franklin Counties, North Carolina]
Key Biomarkers in Data: ,Blood Pressure(BP), Pulse, Body Mass Index(BMI)- Weight height, Waist-Hip.
- The Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging
SATSA was started in 1984 and is comprised of several longitudinal components. A comprehensive questionnaire was sent in the first component to all twins separated at an early age and reared apart and a control sample of twins reared together from the Swedish Twin Registry. The questionnaire included items concerning rearing, adult, and working environment, health status, health related behaviors (e.g. alcohol, tobacco, and dietary habits) as well as attitude and personality measures. The questionnaire phase is repeated every third year: Thus far more than 2,000 twins have responded to questionnaires sent in 1984, 1987, 1990 and 1993. In the second component a subsample of approximately 150 twin pairs reared apart and 150 twin pairs reared together have participated in four waves of in person testing including a health examination, structured interviews/tests of functional capacity, cognitive abilities, and memory. The first three waves were at 3 year intervals, the fourth was initiated in 1999 and a fifth wave in 2002. Data from SATSA are analyzed for the purpose of examining the relative importance of genetic and environmental factors for individual differences in aging related processes. Longitudinal changes as well as the relationships within and among domains (e.g. the importance of genetic effects for mediating the relationship between physical health and cognitive decline) for the elderly are of primary interest. Molecular genetic methods are also being applied to the data.
Key Biomarkers in Data: Blood Pressure(BP), Pulse, Total Cholesterol, High Density Lipoprotiens(HDL), Glycoylated Hemoglobin(HgAlc), Triglycerides, Insulin, Glucose, ,Low Density Lipoprotein(LDL) , Fibrinogen, Apoe, Body Mass Index(BMI)- Weight height, Waist-Hip, Lung (Peak Flow etc), Albumn,Iron, Hemoglobin, Serum, Plasma, DNA, Sodium, Potassium.
10. Individual differences among the oldest-old: OCTO-Twin
Whereas SATSA has provided unique information
concerning genetic and environmental effects for aging among the young-old,
OCTO-Twin is concerned with the etiology of individual differences among
Key Biomarkers in Data: High Density Lipoprotiens(HDL), Triglycerides, 2-Hour OCTT, Apoe, Iron, Urea, y-GGT, Selenim, Igf-1(Folate), Vitamins/Antioxidants, Calcium, TSH, T4, PSA, Creatinine- Serum, Telomere Length, Complete Blood Count(CBC).
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) are a series of nationally representative, cross-sectional surveys of the non-institutionalized U.S. population that include data from an interview, a clinical examination, and laboratory tests.
In brief, NHANES III and IV included a stratified multi-stage probability sample based on selection of counties, blocks, households, and persons within households. Both studies included an oversample of Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic blacks.
Interview data include information on health behaviors, living arrangements, and physical and mental health. Exam data include everything from blood pressure to bone density scans and oral health assessment. Laboratory tests included blood and urine analysis on issues ranging from nutritional biochemistries to HIV status.
Data collection, examination protocols, and laboratory test procedures are detailed on the NHANES website: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes.htm.
12. WhiteHall II Study
Key Biomarkers in Data: Cortisol, Adrenocotricotropic
hormone(ACTH), Blood Pressure(BP), Pulse, Heart Rate variability, Total
Cholesterol, High Density Lipoprotiens(HDL), Glycoylated Hemoglobin(HgAlc),
Triglycerides, Insulin, Glucose,Low Density Lipoprotein(LDL), IL-6, C-Reactive
Protien, Fibrinogen, Apoe, Body Mass Index(BMI)- Weight height, Waist-Hip,
Lung (Peak Flow etc), Plasma, DNA.