Major Studies Using Biomarkers

Some of the major datasets that have collected biomarker data include

1. Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA)
2. Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS)
3. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC)
4. Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study (SEBAS) in Taiwan
5. English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA)
6. MacArthur Study of Successful Aging
7. Dynamics of Health, Aging and Body Composition (HEALTH ABC)
8. Hispanic Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (Hispanic EPESE) 1993-2004
9. The Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA)
10. Individual differences among the oldest-old (OCTO-Twin)

11. National Health and Nutrition Examination (NHANES III, IV)
12. Whitehall Study

 

1. Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA)
Link : http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/resources/deca/descriptions/cardia.htm

CARDIA is designed to increase understanding of contributors to changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors during the critical years of transition from adolescence through young adulthood to middle age. CARDIA was funded initially in 1983 for a five year cycle that included two rounds of examinations. Contract renewals have allowed for subsequent re-examinations.
SAMPLE: Black and white men and women; ages 18-30 years at entry with a range of attained education; sample size: 5,115.
Design: CARDIA is a population-based observational study of 5,115 participants aged 18-30 years recruited in 1985-1986. The sample was designed to achieve approximately balanced subgroups of race, gender, education (high school or less and more than high school) and age (18-24 and 25-30).
A second examination (1987-1988), third (1990-1991), fourth (1992-1993), fifth (1995-1996), and sixth examinations (2000-2001) have been completed in the cohort.
In addition to standard measurements of blood pressure, anthropometry, blood lipids, smoking behavior, physical activity, diet, pulmonary function, and many psychological factors, CARDIA has other included measurements (in subsets or in the full cohort) to obtain unique information on other aspects of risk factor development and early morbidity. These have included: graded exercise treadmill testing; echocardiography, particularly for measurement of left ventricular mass; cardiovascular reactivity; serum cotinine; Lp(a), apoE phenotype, apolipoprotein A1 and B; homocysteine; skin reflectance; body composition by dual X-ray absorptiometry; glucose tolerance testing; vascular resistance and compliance; and plasma renin activity and sympathetic nervous system activity.

2. Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS)
Link 1: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/resources/deca/descriptions/chs.htm
Link 2: http://128.208.129.3/CHS/

The Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) is a study of risk factors for development and progression of CHD and stroke in people aged 65 years and older.
Original Sample:The Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) is a population-based longitudinal study of coronary heart disease and stroke in adults aged 65 years and older in 1989. Just over 5200 men and women (5201) were recruited from four communities: Forsyth County, North Carolina; Sacramento County, California; Washington County, Maryland; and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. An additional 687 African Americans were recruited after the initial baseline survey.
Eligible participants were sampled from Medicare eligibility lists in each area. Those eligible included all persons living in the household of each individual sampled from the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) sampling frame, who were 65 years or older at the time of examination, were noninstitutionalized, were expected to remain in the area for the next three years, and were able to give informed consent and did not require a proxy respondent at baseline. Extensive physical and laboratory evaluations were performed at baseline to identify the presence and severity of CVD risk factors such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and glucose intolerance; subclinical disease such as carotid artery atherosclerosis, left ventricular enlargement, and transient ischemia; and clinically overt CVD.
1992 Cohort: A new cohort was recruited in 1992. The 687 participants in the new cohort are predominately African-American and were recruited at three of the four field centers.

3. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC)
Link 1. http://www.cscc.unc.edu/aric/#
Link 2. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/resources/deca/descriptions/aric.htm

The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC) is a prospective epidemiologic study conducted in four U.S. communities. ARIC is designed to investigate the etiology and natural history of atherosclerosis, the etiology of clinical atherosclerotic diseases, and variation in cardiovascular risk factors, medical care and disease by race, gender, location, and date.
Sample: The Cohort Component began in 1987, and each ARIC field center randomly selected and recruited a cohort sample of approximately 4,000 individuals aged 45-64 from a defined population in their community.
A total of 15,792 participants received an extensive examination, including medical, social, and demographic data. These participants were reexamined every three years with the first screen (baseline) occurring in 1987-89, the second in 1990-92, the third in 1993-95, and the fourth and last exam was in 1996-98. Follow-up occurs yearly by telephone to maintain contact with participants and to assess health status of the cohort.

4. Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study (SEBAS) in Taiwan
Link. http://webapp.icpsr.umich.edu/cocoon/ICPSR-STUDY/03792.xml

The Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study (SEBAS) provides information regarding the health and well-being of older persons in Taiwan. Taiwan has undergone rapid demographic, social, and economic changes, becoming a highly urbanized and industrial society with a growing population of persons age 65 or older. SEBAS explores the relationship between life challenges and mental and physical health, the impact of social environment on the health and well-being of the elderly, and biological markers of health and stress. The study collected self-reports of physical, psychological, and social well-being, plus extensive clinical data based on medical examinations and laboratory analyses. Examination of health outcomes included chronic illnesses, functional status, psychological well-being, and cognitive function. Questions regarding life challenges focused on perceived stress, economic difficulties, security and safety, and the consequences of a major earthquake. Biological markers were used to identify cardiovascular risk factors, metabolic process measures, immune-system activity, the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis, and sympathetic nervous system activity.

Key Biomarkers in Data: Cortisol, Norepinephrine, Epinephrine,Blood Pressure(BP), Pulse, Total Cholesterol, High Density Lipoprotiens(HDL), Glycoylated Hemoglobin(HgAlc), IL-6, Apoe, Body Mass Index(BMI)- Weight height, Waist-Hip, Albumn,Iron, Hemoglobin, Plasma, DNA, Sodium, Potassium, Bilirubin, Igf-1.

5. English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA)
Link http://www.natcen.ac.uk/elsa/faq/about.htm

The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) is about the lives of people in England who are aged 50 and over (and about their partners, if they are under 50). The study will cover a broad range of topics such as people's health, economic situation and quality of life. It will help us learn about how people's experiences vary and how their circumstances change over time. We plan to visit the members of the study every two years, and are currently visiting members for the second time.
ELSA is modelled on a similar study in the USA (the Health and Retirement Study). A parallel study, the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe, is being developed in Europe.

6. MacArthur Study of Successful Aging
Link : http://www.aging.ucla.edu/successfulaging.html

Since 1996, there has been increasing interest in how to define, and how to accomplish, what we call "successful" aging.
The MacArthur Study of Successful Aging investigated factors that influence physical and cognitive functioning among relatively highly functional volunteers between the ages of 70 and 79. A pool of 4,030 potential subjects, from three community-based groups, was screened based on specific physical and cognitive criteria. The top third of that group who agreed to participate, numbering 1189, were enrolled in the study.
The selected subjects underwent a 90-minute personal interview that included a detailed assessment of physical and cognitive capabilities, overall health status, and social, lifestyle, and psychological characteristics, The subjects were then followed for an average of seven years, from 1988/89 through 1995/96, through periodic interviews, to monitor their status as they aged.

Key Biomarkers in Data: Cortisol, Norepinephrine, Epinephrine, Blood Pressure, Pulse, Total Cholesterol, HDL, Glycosolated Hemoglobin, IL-6, C-reactive protein, Fibrinogen, ApoE, BMI, Waist-Hop, Lung function, Albumin, Iron, Hemoglobin, Sodium, Potassium, Homocysteine, Vitamins/Antioxidants,Plasma, DNA.

Related Link :
http://www.nia.nih.gov/ResearchInformation/ScientificResources/StudyInfo.htm?id=56


7. The Dynamics of Health, Aging and Body Composition (HEALTH ABC)

The major objectives of the HEALTH ABC Study relate to observations that change in body composition in old age, particularly the increase in body fat and the decline in lean mass and bone mineral, represent a common pathway by which multiple diseases contribute to disability. The HEALTH ABC Study can be used to investigate extent of change in body composition in older men and women, identify clinical conditions accelerating these changes, and examine the health impact of these changes on strength, endurance, disability, and weight-related diseases of old age.
Sample: The study population consists of 3,075 persons age 70-79 at baseline with about equal numbers of men and women. Thirty-three percent of the men are African-Americans as are 46% of the women. All persons in the study were selected to be free of disability in activities of daily living and free of functional limitation (defined as any difficulty walking a quarter of a mile or any difficulty walking up 10 steps without resting) at baseline.
Study design: The core yearly examination for HEALTH ABC includes measurement of body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), walking ability, strength, an interview that includes self-report of limitations, a medication survey, and weight (Measurements in the Health ABC Study). Provision has been made for banking of blood specimens and extracted DNA (HealthABC repository). Study investigators are open to collaboration especially for measures focused on obesity and associated weight-related health conditions including osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, pulmonary function, cardiovascular disease, vascular disease, diabetes and glucose intolerance, and depression.

For further information, see the Health ABC website - http://www.nia.nih.gov/research/intramural/edb/healthabc/index.htm

8. Hispanic EPESE 1993-2004

The National Institute on Aging funded Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (Hispanic EPESE) is modeled after the design of the Established Populations For Epidemiologic Studies Of The Elderly, 1981-1993: [East Boston, Massachusetts, Iowa And Washington Counties, Iowa, New Haven, Connecticut, And North Central North Carolina] and Established Populations For Epidemiologic Studies Of The Elderly, 1996-1997: Piedmont Health Survey Of The Elderly, Fourth In-Person Survey [Durham, Warren, Vance, Granville, And Franklin Counties, North Carolina]
The Hispanic EPESE originally collected baseline data beginning in September 1993 through June 1994 on a representative sample of community-dwelling Mexican-American elderly, aged 65 years and older, residing in the five southwestern states of Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas. The primary purpose of the study is to provide estimates of the prevalence of key physical health conditions, mental health conditions, and functional impairments in older Mexican Americans and to compare these estimates with those for other populations. The Hispanic EPESE has also attempted to determine whether certain risk factors for mortality and morbidity operate differently in Mexican American elders than in non-Hispanic White Americans, African Americans, and other major ethnic groups. The Hispanic EPESE is currently completing its fourth wave of in-home evaluations.

Key Biomarkers in Data: ,Blood Pressure(BP), Pulse, Body Mass Index(BMI)- Weight height, Waist-Hip.

9.SATSA - The Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging
Link : http://www.mep.ki.se/research/projects/pedersen_n/satsa_en.html

SATSA was started in 1984 and is comprised of several longitudinal components. A comprehensive questionnaire was sent in the first component to all twins separated at an early age and reared apart and a control sample of twins reared together from the Swedish Twin Registry. The questionnaire included items concerning rearing, adult, and working environment, health status, health related behaviors (e.g. alcohol, tobacco, and dietary habits) as well as attitude and personality measures. The questionnaire phase is repeated every third year: Thus far more than 2,000 twins have responded to questionnaires sent in 1984, 1987, 1990 and 1993. In the second component a subsample of approximately 150 twin pairs reared apart and 150 twin pairs reared together have participated in four waves of in person testing including a health examination, structured interviews/tests of functional capacity, cognitive abilities, and memory. The first three waves were at 3 year intervals, the fourth was initiated in 1999 and a fifth wave in 2002. Data from SATSA are analyzed for the purpose of examining the relative importance of genetic and environmental factors for individual differences in aging related processes. Longitudinal changes as well as the relationships within and among domains (e.g. the importance of genetic effects for mediating the relationship between physical health and cognitive decline) for the elderly are of primary interest. Molecular genetic methods are also being applied to the data.

Key Biomarkers in Data: Blood Pressure(BP), Pulse, Total Cholesterol, High Density Lipoprotiens(HDL), Glycoylated Hemoglobin(HgAlc), Triglycerides, Insulin, Glucose, ,Low Density Lipoprotein(LDL) , Fibrinogen, Apoe, Body Mass Index(BMI)- Weight height, Waist-Hip, Lung (Peak Flow etc), Albumn,Iron, Hemoglobin, Serum, Plasma, DNA, Sodium, Potassium.

10. Individual differences among the oldest-old: OCTO-Twin

Whereas SATSA has provided unique information concerning genetic and environmental effects for aging among the young-old, OCTO-Twin is concerned with the etiology of individual differences among the old-old.
The study is designed much the same as SATSA, with questionnaire, health assessments, and extensive cognitive testing. All 80 year old and older twin pairs in Sweden, where both in the pair are still alive, have been recruited to participate in the study, which was completed with 5 waves of data collection at 2 year intervals. Of primary interest is the importance of genetic and environmental factors contributing to continued well-being, health, and functional capacity in this unique material.

Key Biomarkers in Data: High Density Lipoprotiens(HDL), Triglycerides, 2-Hour OCTT, Apoe, Iron, Urea, y-GGT, Selenim, Igf-1(Folate), Vitamins/Antioxidants, Calcium, TSH, T4, PSA, Creatinine- Serum, Telomere Length, Complete Blood Count(CBC).

Link. http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/pdf/03546/User_s_Manual.pdf


11. National Health and Nutrition Examination (NHANES III, IV)
Link. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes.htm

The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) are a series of nationally representative, cross-sectional surveys of the non-institutionalized U.S. population that include data from an interview, a clinical examination, and laboratory tests.

In brief, NHANES III and IV included a stratified multi-stage probability sample based on selection of counties, blocks, households, and persons within households. Both studies included an oversample of Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic blacks.

Interview data include information on health behaviors, living arrangements, and physical and mental health. Exam data include everything from blood pressure to bone density scans and oral health assessment. Laboratory tests included blood and urine analysis on issues ranging from nutritional biochemistries to HIV status.

NHANES III
The survey and examination involved the collection of data over the 1988–94 period from about 18,000 persons 20 years of age or older in a nationally representative sample of the US noninstitutional population.

NHANES IV

The survey and examination involved the collection of data over the 1999-2000 and 2001-2002 period in a nationally representative sample of the US noninstitutional population.

Data collection, examination protocols, and laboratory test procedures are detailed on the NHANES website: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes.htm.

12. WhiteHall II Study
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/whitehallII/

Key Biomarkers in Data: Cortisol, Adrenocotricotropic hormone(ACTH), Blood Pressure(BP), Pulse, Heart Rate variability, Total Cholesterol, High Density Lipoprotiens(HDL), Glycoylated Hemoglobin(HgAlc), Triglycerides, Insulin, Glucose,Low Density Lipoprotein(LDL), IL-6, C-Reactive Protien, Fibrinogen, Apoe, Body Mass Index(BMI)- Weight height, Waist-Hip, Lung (Peak Flow etc), Plasma, DNA.

2005 Network on Measurement of Biological Risk