Types of Biomarkers and Their Measurement

 

Venous Blood DBS Urine Dried Urine Saliva Hair Phys Ex
Cardiovascular Risk Factors              
  Blood Pressure             X
  Pulse              X
  Heart Rate Variability             X*
Metabolic Measures              
  Total Cholesterol X ?          
  HDL Cholesterol X ?          
  LDL Cholesterol X ?          
  Tryglycerides X ?          
  Glycosylated Hemoglobin X X          
  Insulin X X          
  Glucose X ?          
Inflammatory/Immune Markers              
  IL-6 X   X   ?    
  C-Reactive Protein (CRP) X X     ?    
  Fibrinogen X            
  Von Willebrand Factor X            
  Immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgE) X X X   ?    
  CD4              
Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis              
  Cortisol X   X   X ?  
  Adrenocotricotropic hormone (ACTH) X   X   X    
  Dehydroepiandrosterone-Sulphate (DHEA-S) X   X   X    
Sympathetic Nervous System              
  Norepinephrine X   X   X    
  Epinephrine X   X   X    
Anthropometry              
  Height             X
  Leg Length              X
  Weight             X
  Body Mass Index (BMI)             X
  Waist/Hip Circumference             X
Genetics              
  Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE) X       X    
  APOE X       X    
  IL-6 Polymorphism X       X    
  CRP Polymorphism X       X    
  Gene expression X ?          
Miscellaneous              
  Peak Flow             X
  Bone Density             X
  Albumin X   X   X    
  Iron X            
  Homocysteine X   X   X    
  Sodium X            
  Potassium X            
  Vitamins/Antioxidants X            
  Oxidative Stress X            
  IGF-1 X            
  Telomere length X ?          
  Telomerase X ?          
X = Completed successfully in community / field studies
? = Technically possible but not yet done in community / field studies
* Requires ECG

 

 

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