Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS)

Overview
The Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS), supported by NIA and Chinese resources, conducted face-to-face interviews in 1998, 2000, 2002, 2005, 2008-2009, 2012, respectively, using internationally compatible questionnaires. The CLHLS project has the largest sample of centenarians in the world (plus compatible groups of nonagenarians, octogenarians, and young-old aged 65-79), according to a report in Science (see the report). The goal of the survey is to determine which factors, out of a large set of social, behavioral, and environmental risk factors, play an important role in healthy longevity. The large population size, the focus on healthy longevity (rather than on a specific disease or disorder), the simultaneous consideration of various risk factors, and the use of analytical strategies based on demographic concepts make this an innovative demographic data collection and research project.

Data Collection
The CLHLS project focuses on the oldest-old aged 80 and older from 22 provinces in mainland China. From 2002 on, the CLHLS includes those young elders aged 65-79 for comparison. The baseline survey was conducted in 1998, with follow-up surveys with replacement for deceased elders, were conducted in 2000, 2002, 2005 and 2008-2009 in a randomly selected half of the total number of counties and cities in the 22 provinces. The survey areas covered 1.1 billion people (85% of the total population in China). The baseline survey included approximately 9,000 individuals, and follow-up surveys included approximately 11,200 respondents in 2000, 20,200 in 2002, 18,500 in 2005, and 19,900 in 2008-09. Among approximately 80,000 interviews conducted in the five waves, 14,376 were with centenarians, 18,938 with nonagenarians, 20,823 with octogenarians, 14,285 with younger elders aged 65-79, and 10,962 with middle-age adults aged 35-64. Data on mortality and health status before dying for the 17,649 elders aged 65-110 who died between waves were collected in interviews with a close family member of the deceased.

Biomarkers
Biomarkers available in the CLHLS include weight, height, blood pressure, heart rhythm and rate, peak lung flow (1998 only), lower and upper extremities performance. In addition, dry blood spot samples were collected from 4,116 oldest-old aged 80 and older in the CLHLS 1998 baseline survey. About 14,000 DNA samples were collected (including 12,032 individuals with saliva samples only, 1,826 individuals with both whole blood and saliva samples and 119 individuals with whole blood samples only) in our CLHLS 2008-2009 wave. In total, we have DNA samples from 18,093 individuals, including 3,312 centenarians, 4,375 nonagenarians, 4,658 octogenarians, 3,250 younger elderly aged 65-79, and 2,521 controls aged 40-64. As part of CLHLS data/DNA sample collection, interviews and a health exam with blood/urine collection by local medical personnel were carried out in Feb.-June 2009 in the seven "Chinese Longevity Areas (CLA)" professionally evaluated and formally designated by the Chinese Society of Gerontology. These 2009 samples consist of 2,029 participants and among them 1,939 (95.1%) provided their venous blood for biomarkers testing including 369 centenarians, 354 nonagenarians, 336 octogenarians, 419 young-old aged 60-79 and 461 adults aged 40-59.

Publications 

http://centerforaging.duke.edu/publications

Yang Li, Wen-Jing Wang, Huiqing Cao, Jiehua Lu, Chong Wu, Fang-Yuan Hu, Jian Guo, Ling Zhao, Fan Yang, Yi-Xin
  Guo, Ling Zhao, Fan Yang, Yi-Xin Zhang, Wei Li, Gu-Yan Zheng, Hanbin Cui, Xiaomin Chen, Zhiming Zhu, Hongbo He, Birong Dong, Xianming Mo, Yi Zeng, and Xiao-Li Tian* (2009. "Genetic association of FOXO1A and FOXO3A with longevity trait in Han Chinese populations." Human Molecular Genetics, 18: 4897 – 4904 [PMC2790334]
Zeng, Yi, Cheng, L., Chen, H., Cao, H., Hauser, E., Liu, Y., Xiao, Z., Tan, Q., Tian, X., Vaupel, J.W. (2010). Effects
  of FOXO Genotypes on Longevity: A Bio-demographic Analysis. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 65A (12): 1285-1299 (Yi Zeng and Xiao-Li Tian are co-corresponding authors) [PMC PMC2990269].
Zeng, Yi, Huashuai Chen, Xiaoming Shi, Zhaoxue Yin, Ze Yang and Dan Blazer (2011). "Genetic Heritance
  Interacts with Environmental Factors to Significantly Affect Health at Old Ages." Forthcoming in: Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences.
Zeng, Yi, Claude Hughes, Megan Lewis, Jianxin Li, Fengyu Zhang (2011). "Interactions between Life Stress
  Factors and Carrying the APOE4 Allele Adversely Impact Self-Reported Health in Old Adults", Journal of Gerontology Series A: Biological and Medical Sciences. doi:10.1093/gerona/glr106.
Shi, Xiaoming, Zhaoxue Yin, Hanzhu Qian, Yi Zhai, Yuzhi Liu, Jianwei Xu, Yi Zeng "An analysis on chronic
  diseases and the relevant health indicators of centenarians  in the longevity areas in China", Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2010, 44 (2). (In Chinese) [co-corresponding authors: Xiaoming Shi and Yi Zeng].
Zhai, Yi, Zhaoxue Yin, Jianwei Xu, Yi Zeng, Yuzhi Liu, Xiaoming Shi, "The anemia of the oldest-old aged 80+ in
  longevity areas in China: status and determinants", Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2010, 44 (2). (In Chinese) [co-corresponding authors: Xiaoming Shi and Yi Zeng].
Yin, Zhaoxue, Xiaoming Shi, Jianwei Xu, Yi Zhai, Yuzhi Liu, Yi Zeng "The levels of superoxide dismutase and
  malondialdehyde in the serum of long-life people aged 90+ in longevity areas in China: status and determinants", Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2010, 44 (2) (In Chinese) [co-corresponding authors: Xiaoming Shi and Yi Zeng].
Xu, Jianwei, Xiaoming Shi, Zhaoxue Yin, Yuzhi Liu, Yi Zhai, Yi Zeng "A analysis of the plasma trace element
  levels of long-life people aged 90+ in longevity areas in China", Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2010, 44 (2) (In Chinese) [co-corresponding authors: Xiaoming Shi and Yi Zeng].
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