Measures of financial adjustments capture the financial behaviors (e.g., selling household items, reducing spending) one engages in to meet financial obligations.
Source: Wadsworth ME, Santiago CD. Risk and resiliency processes in ethnically diverse families in poverty. Journal of Family Psychology. 2008;22(3):399-410.
Psychometric properties: Cronbach’s alpha = 0.74
r = 0.30 (statistically significantly correlated with family poverty-related stress)
In order to save money or get money to cover household expenses during the past year, did you:
|Move to a cheaper residence|
|Move in with relatives|
|Reduce spending on vacations|
|Reduce spending on clothes|
|Substitute cheaper food products|
|Eat less meat|
|Trade your car for a cheaper model|
|Cut back on entertainment expenditures|
|Reduce spending on nonessentials|
|Borrow or were given money by a relative|
*Response options changed to “yes/no” for the Money-Health Connection study. In the Wadsworth and Santiago (2008) study, respondents completed questions on a 5-point scale, indicating how often each of 11 items was true for them in the past 6 months.
Source: Lempers JD, Clark-Lempers D, Simons RL. Economic hardship, parenting, and distress in adolescence. Child Development. 1989;60(1): 25-39.
Psychometric properties: Cronbach’s alpha = 0.86 of 11-items from a 12-item scale of “Economic Hardship.”
During the last 6 months, how often did your family:
|Cut back on social activities and entertainment expenses|
|Postpone major household purchases|
|Postpone clothing purchases|
|Change transportation patterns to save money|
|Change food shopping or eating habits to save money|
|Cut back on charitable contributions|
|Reduce household utility use|
|Sell some possessions|
|Postpone medical care to save money|
|Take additional employment to help meet expenses|