Note: To browse the most highly cited papers from the list below, click here. To obtain data files and other materials associated with the studies we have published since 2011, please click on the Open Science Framework (OSF) links provided next to publications listed below or search OSF by researcher name. To get updates on our on-going work, follow @MaraMather or our lab’s combined tweets at Twitter, @MatherLab at Facebook, and check out our lab news.


Kennedy, B. L., & Mather, M. (2023, January 25). About time? The role of time perspective in the priority for positive over negative emotion in attention. Retrieved from

Kim, A. J., Nguyen, K., & Mather, M. (2024, May 8). Eye movements reveal age differences in how arousal modulates saliency priority but not attention processing speed, bioRxiv. Preprint

In Press

Chang, E., Kapoor, A., Lohman, T., Dutt, S., Alitin, J.P.M., Sible, I.J., Gaubert, A., Ho, J.K., Blanken, A.E., Mather, M., Shao, X., Wang, D.J.J., & Nation, D.A. (in press). Older adults with smaller and less complex social networks show deficits in medial temporal cerebrovascular reactivity. Journal of the American Heart Association. PDF

Dahl, M., Werkle-Bergner, M., & Mather, M. (in press). Neuromodulatory systems in aging and disease. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. Read OnlinePDF

Kim, A. J. & Mather, M. (in press). The effects of mindfulness meditation on mechanisms of attentional control in young and older adults. eNeuro. OSF


Aschbacher, K., Mather, M., Lehrer, P., Gevirtz, R., Epel, E., & Peiper, N. C. (2024). Real-time heart rate variability biofeedback amplitude during a large-scale digital mental health intervention differed by age, gender, and mental and physical health. Psychophysiology, e14533.

Kennedy, B., & Mather, M. (2024). Negative images, regardless of task relevance, distract younger more than older adults. Psychology and Aging.

Kim, A. J., Senior, J., Chu, S., & Mather, M. (2024). Aging impairs reactive attentional control but not proactive distractor inhibition. J Exp Psychol Gen.

Lohman, T., Sible, I., Kapoor, A., Engstrom, A. C., Shenasa, F., Alitin, J. P. M., Gaubert, A., Rodgers, K. E., Bradford, D., Mather, M., Han, S. D., Thayer, J. F., & Nation, D. A. (2024). Blood Pressure Variability, Central Autonomic Network Dysfunction, and Cerebral Small-Vessel Disease in APOE4 Carriers. J Am Heart Assoc, 13(9), e034116.

Mather, M. (2024). The emotion paradox in the aging body and brain. Ann N Y Acad Sci. | Preprint

Min, J., & Mather, M. (2024). Applying human affectome framework to autonomic compensation model. Neurosci Biobehav Rev, 105611.

Min, J., Koenig, J., Nashiro, K., Yoo, H. J., Cho, C., Thayer, J. F., Mather, M. (2024). Resting heart rate variability is associated with neural adaptation when repeatedly exposed to emotional stimuli. Neuropsychologia, 196, 108819.

Nashiro, K., Yoo, H. J., Cho, C., Kim, A. J., Nasseri, P., Min, J., Dahl, M. J., Mercer, N., Choupan, J., Choi, P., Lee, H. R. J., Choi, D., Alemu, K., Herrera, A. Y., Ng, N. F., Thayer, J. F., & Mather, M. (2024). Heart rate and breathing effects on attention and memory (HeartBEAM): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial in older adults. Trials, 25(1), 190.

Sible, I. J., Jang, J. Y., Blanken, A. E., Alitin, J. P. M., Engstrom, A., Dutt, S., Marshall, A. J., Kapoor, A., Shenasa, F., Gaubert, A., Nguyen, A., Ferrer, F., Bradford, D. R., Rodger, K. E., Mather, M., Han, S. D., & Nation, D. A. (2024). Short-term blood pressure variability and brain functional network connectivity in older adults. NeuroImage:Reports, 4, 100198.


Bachman, S. L., Attanti, S., & Mather, M. (2023). Isometric handgrip exercise speeds working memory responses in younger and older adults. Psychology and Aging38(4), 305–322.

Bachman, S. L., Cole, S., Yoo, H. J., Nashiro, K., Min, J., Mercer, N., Nasseri, P., Thayer, J. F., Lehrer, P., & Mather, M. (2023). Daily heart rate variability biofeedback training decreases locus coeruleus MRI contrast in younger adults in a randomized clinical trial. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 193, 112241. | PDF | OpenNeuro

Cho, C., Yoo, H. J., Min, J., Nashiro, K., Thayer, J. F., Lehrer, P. M., & Mather, M. (2023). Changes in medial prefrontal cortex mediate effects of heart rate variability biofeedback on positive emotional memory biases. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 48(2), 135-147.

Dahl, M. J., Bachman, S. L., Dutt, S., Düzel, S., Bodammer, N. C., Lindenberger, U., Kühn, S., Werkle-Bergner, M., & Mather, M. (2023). The integrity of dopaminergic and noradrenergic brain regions is associated with different aspects of late-life memory performance. Nature Aging, 3, 1128–1143.

Dahl, M. J., Kulesza, A., Werkle-Bergner, M., & Mather, M. (2023). Declining locus coeruleus-dopaminergic and noradrenergic modulation of long-term memory in aging and Alzheimer’s disease. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 153.

Ehrenberg, A. J., Kelberman, M. A., Liu, K. Y., Dahl, M. J., Weinshenker, D., Falgàs, N., Dutt, S., Mather, M. et al. (2023). Priorities for research on neuromodulatory subcortical systems in Alzheimer’s disease: Position paper from the NSS PIA of ISTAART. Alzheimer’s & Dementia.

Liu, K. Y., Whitsel, E. A., Heiss, G., Palta, P., Reeves, S., Lin, F. V., Mather, M., Roiser, J. P., & Howard, R. (2023). Heart rate variability and risk of agitation in Alzheimer’s disease: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Brain Communications, 5(6), fcad269.

Min, J., Koenig, J., Nashiro, K., Yoo, H. J., Cho, C., Thayer, J. F., Mather, M. (2023). Sex differences in neural correlates of emotion regulation in relation to resting heart rate variability. Brain Topography, 36, 698-709.

Min, J., Rouanet, J., Martini, A. C., Nashiro, K., Yoo, H. J., Porat, S., Cho, C., Wan, J., Cole, S. W., Head, E., Nation, D. A., Thayer, J. F., & Mather, M. (2023). Modulating heart rate oscillation affects plasma amyloid beta and tau levels in younger and older adults. Scientific Reports, 13(1), 3967. | OSF

Nashiro, K., Min, J., Yoo, H. J., Cho, C., Bachman, S. L., Dutt, S., Thayer, J. F., Lehrer, P. M., Feng, T., Mercer, N., Nasseri, P., Wang, D., Chang, C., Marmarelis, V. Z., Narayanan, S., Nation, D. A., & Mather, M. (2023). Increasing coordination and responsivity of emotion-related brain regions with a heart rate variability biofeedback randomized trial. Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience23(1), 66–83.

Nashiro, K., Yoo, H. J., Cho, C., Min, J., Feng, T., Nasseri, P., Bachman, S. L., Lehrer, P., Thayer, J. F., & Mather, M. (2023). Effects of a Randomised Trial of 5-Week Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback Intervention on Cognitive Function: Possible Benefits for Inhibitory Control. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback48(1), 35–48.

Sible, I. J., Jang, J. Y., Dutt, S., Yew, B., Alitin, J. P. M., Li, Y., Blanken, A. E., Ho, J. K., Marshall, A. J., Kapoor, A., Shenasa, F., Gaubert, A., Nguyen, A., Sturm, V. E., Mather, M., Rodgers, K. E., Shao, X., Wang, D. J., & Nation, D. A. (2023). Older Adults With Higher Blood Pressure Variability Exhibit Cerebrovascular Reactivity Deficits. American Journal of Hypertension36(1), 63–68.

Sible, I. J., Yoo, H. J., Min, J., Nashiro, K., Chang, C., Nation, D. A., & Mather, M. M. (2023). Short-term blood pressure variability is inversely related to regional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations in older and younger adults. Aging Brain, 4.

Yoo, H. J., Nashiro, K., Dutt, S., Min, J., Cho, C., Thayer, J. F., Lehrer, P., Chang, C., & Mather, M. (2023). Daily biofeedback to modulate heart rate oscillations affects structural volume in hippocampal subregions targeted by the locus coeruleus in older adults but not younger adults. Neurobiology of Aging, 132, 85-99. | OpenNeuro

Yoo, H. J., Nashiro, K., Min, J., Cho, C., Mercer, N., Bachman, S. L., Nasseri, P., Dutt, S., Porat, S., Choi, P., Zhang, Y., Grigoryan, V., Feng, T., Thayer, J. F., Lehrer, P., Chang, C., Stanley, J. A., Marmarelis, V. Z., Narayanan, S., . . . Mather, M. (2023). Multimodal neuroimaging data from a 5-week heart rate variability biofeedback randomized clinical trial. Scientific Data, 10, 503. | OpenNeuro


Bachman, S. L., Nashiro, K., Yoo, H. J., Wang, D., Thayer, J. F. & Mather, M. (2022). Associations between locus coeruleus MRI contrast and physiological responses to acute stress in younger and older adults. Brain Research, 1796, 148070. | OpenNeuro

Dahl, M. J., Mather, M., Werkle-Bergner, M., Kennedy, B. L., Guzman, S., Hurth, K., Miller, C. A., Qiao, Y., Shi, Y., Chui, H. C., & Ringman, J. M. (2022). Locus coeruleus integrity is related to tau burden and memory loss in autosomal-dominant Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiology of Aging, 112, 39-54.

Dahl, M. J., Mather, M., Werkle-Bergner, M. (2022). Noradrenergic modulation of rhythmic neural activity shapes selective attention. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 26(1), 38-52.

Gallant, S. N., Kennedy, B. L., Bachman, S. L., Huang, R., Lee, T. H. & Mather, M. (2022). Behavioral and fMRI evidence that arousal enhances bottom-up attention and memory selectivity in young but not older adults. Neurobiology of Aging, 120, 149-166.

Greening, S. G., Lee, T. H., Burleigh, L., Gregoire, L., Robinson, T., Jiang, X., Mather, M., & Kaplan, J. (2022). Mental imagery can generate and regulate acquired differential fear conditioned reactivity. Scientific Reports, 12(997). OpenNeuro

Kapoor, A., Yew, B., Jang, J. Y., Dutt, S., Li, Y., Alitin, J. P. M., Gaubert, A., Ho, J. K., Blanken, A. E., Sible, I. J., Marshall, A., Shao, X., Mather, M., Wang, D. J. J., & Nation, D. A. (2022). Older adults with perivascular spaces exhibit cerebrovascular reactivity deficits. NeuroImage264, 119746.

Loprinzi, P., Olafson, D., Scavuzzo, C., Lovorn, A., Mather, M., Frith, E., & Fujiwara, E. (2022). Effects of acute exercise on emotional memory. Cognition & Emotion, 36(4), 660–689.

Min, J., Nashiro, K., Yoo, H. J., Cho, C., Nasseri, P., Bachman, S. L., Porat, S., Thayer, J. F., Chang, C., Lee, T. H. & Mather, M. (2022). Emotion down-regulation targets interoceptive brain regions while emotion up-regulation targets other affective brain regions. Journal of Neuroscience, 42 (14), 2973-2985. | OpenNeuro

Nashiro, K., Yoo, H. J., Min, J., Cho, C., Nasseri, P., Zhang, Y., Lehrer, P., Thayer, J. F., and Mather, M. (2022). Effects of a randomised trial of 5-week heart rate variability biofeedback intervention on mind wandering and associated brain function. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 22, 1349-1357. | OpenNeuro

Porat, S., Sibilia, F., Yoon, J., Shi, Y., Dahl, M. J., Werkle-Bergner, M., Düzel, S., Bodammer, N., Lindenberger, U., Kühn, S., & Mather, M. (2022). Age Differences in Diffusivity in the Locus Coeruleus and its Ascending Noradrenergic Tract. NeuroImage, 119022.

Yoo, H. J., Nashiro, K., Min, J., Cho, C., Bachman, S. L., Nasseri, P., Porat, S., Dutt, S., Grigoryan, V., Choi, P., Thayer, J. F., Leher, P., Chang, C., & Mather, M. (2022). Heart rate variability (HRV) changes and cortical volume changes in a randomized trial of five weeks of daily HRV biofeedback in younger and older adults. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 181, 50-63.


Bachman, S. L., Dahl, M. J., Werkle-Bergner, M., Düzel, S., Forlim, C. G., Lindenberger, U., Kühn, S., Mather, M. (2021). Locus coeruleus MRI contrast is associated with cortical thickness in older adults. Neurobiology of Aging, 100, 72-82. | PDF

Dutt, S., Li. Y., Mather M., & Nation, D. A. for the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. (2021). Brainstem substructures and cognition in prodromal Alzheimer’s disease. Brain Imaging and Behavior. Advance online publication. | PDF

Koenig, J., Abler, B., Agartz, I., Akerstedt, T., Andreassen, O. A., Anthony, M., Bar, K. J., Bertsch, K., Brown, R. C., Brunner, R., Carnevali, L., Critchley, H. D., Cullen, K. R., de Geus, E. J. C., de la Cruz, F., Dziobek, I., Ferger, M. D., Fischer, H., Flor, H., . . . Quintana, D. S. (2021). Cortical thickness and resting-state cardiac function across the lifespan: A cross-sectional pooled mega-analysis. Psychophysiology, 58(7), e13688.

Mather, M. (2021). Is there a maximum desirable heart rate variability? Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 128, 87-89.

Mather, M. (2021). Noradrenaline in the aging brain: Promoting cognitive reserve or accelerating Alzheimer’s disease? Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology, 116, 108-124.

Montagrin, A., Martins-Klein, B., Sander, D., & Mather, M. (2021). Effects of hunger on emotional arousal responses and attention/memory biases. Emotion, 21, 148-158. | OSF

Thayer, J. F., Mather, M., & Koenig, J. (2021). Stress and aging: A neurovisceral integration perspective. Psychophysiology, 58(7), e13804.


Dahl, M. J., Mather, M., Sander, M. C., & Werkle-Bergner, M. (2020). Noradrenergic responsiveness supports selective attention across the adult lifespan. Journal of Neuroscience, 40(22), 4372-4390.

Dutt, S., Li, Y., Mather, M., & Nation, D. A. for the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. (2020). Brainstem volumetric integrity in preclinical and prodromal Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 77(4), 1579-1594. PDF

Gallant, S. N., Durbin, K. A., Mather, M. (2020). Age differences in vulnerability to distraction under arousal. Psychology and Aging, 35, 780-791. OSF

Kennedy, B. L., Huang, R., & Mather, M. (2020). Age differences in emotion-induced blindness: Positivity effects in early attention. Emotion, 20, 1266-1278. PreprintPDF | OSF

Lee, T. H., Kim, S. H., Katz, B., & Mather, M. (2020). The decline in intrinsic connectivity between the salience network and locus coeruleus in older adults: Implications for distractibility. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience12(2). OpenNeuro

Mather, M. (2020). Commentary on Aging and Positive Mood: Longitudinal Neurobiological and Cognitive Correlates. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 28, 957-958. PDF

Mather, M. (2020). How arousal-related neurotransmitter systems compensate for age-related decline. In A. Gutchess & A. Thomas (Ed.). The Cambridge Handbook of Cognitive Aging: A Life Course Perspective (pp.101-120). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. PDF

Mather, M. (2020). How do cognitively stimulating activities affect cognition and the brain throughout life? Psychological Science in the Public Interest. 21, 1. PDF

Mather, M. (2020). Introduction to the 2019 J. Don Read Early Career Award: Sarah J. Barber. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 9(3), 271-273.

Mather, M. (2020). The locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system role in cognition and how it changes with aging. In D. Poeppel, G. Mangun, & M. Gazzaniga (Ed.). The Cognitive Neurosciences (6th ed., pp.91-104). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. PDF

Mather, M., Huang, R., Clewett, D., Nielsen, S. E., Velasco, R., Tu, K., Han, S., & Kennedy, B. (2020). Isometric exercise facilitates attention to salient events in women via the noradrenergic system. NeuroImage, 210, 116560. OSF

Nasseri, P., Herrera, A. Y., Gillette, K., Faude, S., White, J. D., Velasco, R., & Mather, M. (2020). Hormonal contraceptive phases matter: Resting-state functional connectivity of emotion-processing regions under stress. Neurobiology of Stress, 13, 100276. OpenNeuro

Raffington, L., Falck, J., Heim, C., Mather, M., & Shing, Y. L. (2020). Effects of stress on 6-to-7-year-old children’s emotional memory differs by gender. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 199, 104924. PDF | OSF

Sun, W., Tang, Y., Qiao, Y., Ge, X., Mather, M., Ringman, J., & Shi, Y. (2020). A probabilistic atlas of locus coeruleus pathways to transentorhinal cortex for connectome imaging in Alzheimer’s disease. NeuroImage, 223, 117301.

Ycaza Herrera, A. Y., Velasco, R., Faude, S., White, J., Opitz, P. C., Huang, R., Tu, K., & Mather, M. (2020). Brain activity during a post-stress working memory task differs between the hormone-present and hormone-absent phase of hormonal contraception. Neurobiology of Stress, 13, 100248. OpenNeuro


Betts, M. J., Kirilina, E., Otaduy, M., Ivanov, D., Acosta-Cabronero, J., Callaghan, M., Lambert, C., Cardenas-Bianco, A., Pine, K., Passamonti, L., Loane, C., Keuken, M. C., Trujillo, P., Lusebrink, F., Mattern, H., Liu, K., Priovoulos, N., Fließbach, K., Dahl, M. J., Maaß, A., Madelung, C. F., Meder, D., Ehrenberg, A. J., Speck, O., Weiskopf, N., Dolan, R., Inglis, B., Tosun, D., Morawski, M., Zucca, F. A., Siebner, H. R., Mather, M., Uludag, K., Heinsen, H., Poser, B. A., Howard, R., Zecca, L., Rowe, J. B., Grinberg, L. T., Jacobs, H. I. L., Duzel, E., Hammerer, D. (2019). Locus coeruleus imaging as a biomarker for noradrenergic dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases. Brain.

Dahl, M. J., Mather, M., Düzel, S., Bodammer, N. C., Lindenberger, U., Kühn, S., & Werkle-Bergner, M. (2019). Rostral locus coeruleus integrity is associated with better memory performance in older adults. Nature Human Behaviour

Durbin, K. A., Barber, S. J., Brown, M., & Mather, M. (2019). Optimism for the future in younger and older adults. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 74(4), 565-574. | OSF

Kennedy, B. L., & Mather, M. (2019). Neural mechanisms underlying age-related changes in attentional selectivity. In G. R. Samanez-Larkin (Ed.), The aging brain: Functional adaptation across adulthood (pp. 45–72). Washington DC: American Psychological Association. Preprint

Sakaki, M., Ueno, T., Ponzio, A., Harley, C., & Mather M. (2019). Emotional arousal amplifies competitions across goal-relevant representation: A neurocomputational framework, Cognition, 187, 108-125. | OSF

Ycaza Herrera, A., Faude, S., Nielsen, S., Locke, M., & Mather, M. (2019). Effects of hormonal contraceptive phase and progestin generation on stress-induced cortisol and progesterone release. Neurobiology of Stress, 10.

Ycaza Herrera, A., Wang, J., & Mather, M. (2019). The gist and details of sex differences in cognition and the brain: how parallels in sex differences across domains are shaped by the locus coeruleus and catecholamine systems. Progress in Neurobiology, 176, 120-133. doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2018.05.005. PMID: 29772255.


Clewett, D., Huang, R., Velasco, R., Lee, T. H., & Mather, M. (2018). Locus coeruleus activity strengthens prioritized memories under arousal. Journal of Neuroscience, | OSF

Durbin, K. A., Clewett, D., Huang, R., & Mather, M. (2018). Age differences in selective memory of goal-relevant stimuli under threat. Emotion, 18(6), 906-911. | OSF

Lee, T. H., Greening, S. G., Ueno, T., Clewett, D., Ponzio, A., Sakaki, M., & Mather, M. (2018). Arousal increases neural gain via the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system in younger adults but not in older adults. Nature Human Behavior, 2, 356-366. | PDF | OSF

Martins, B., Florjanczyk, J., Jackson, N. J., Gatz, M., & Mather, M. (2018). Age differences in cognitive effort of emotion regulation: Pupil response distinguishes reappraisal and distraction for older but not younger adults. Psychology and Aging, 33(2), 338-349.

Mather, M., & Fanselow, M. S. (2018). Editorial overview: Interactions between emotion and cognition. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 19, iv-vi.

Mather, M., & Thayer, J. (2018). How heart rate variability affects emotion regulation brain networks. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 19, 98-104.

Sutherland, M. R., & Mather, M. (2018). Arousal (but not valence) amplifies the impact of salience. Cognition and Emotion, 32(3), 616-622. | data files | OSF

Yoo, H. J., Thayer, J. F., Greening, S., Lee, T. H., Ponzio, A., Min, J., Sakaki, M., Nga, L., Mather, M., & Koenig, J. (2018). Brain structural concomitants of resting state heart rate variability in the young and old—Evidence from two independent samples. Brain Structure and Function, 223, 727-737.


Barber, S. J., Castrellon, J. J., Opitz, P., & Mather, M. (2017). Younger and older adults’ collaborative recall of shared and unshared emotional pictures. Memory & Cognition, 45, 716-730.

Clewett, D., Sakaki, M., Huang, R., Nielsen, S., & Mather, M. (2017). Arousal amplifies biased competition between high and low priority memories more in women than in men: the role of elevated noradrenergic activity. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 80, 80-91.

Clewett, D., Sakaki, M., Nielsen, S., Petzinger, G., & Mather, M. (2017). Noradrenergic mechanisms of arousal’s bidirectional effects on episodic memory. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 137, 1-14. | OSF

Mather, M., Yoo, H. J., Clewett, D. V., Lee, T. H., Greening, S. G., Ponzio, A., Min, J., & Thayer, J. F. (2017). Higher locus coeruleus MRI contrast is associated with lower parasympathetic influence over heart rate variability. NeuroImage, 150, 329-335. | data file | OSF

Nashiro, K., Guevara-Aguirre, J., Braskie, M., Hafzalla, G., Velasco, R., Balasubramian, P., Wei, M., Thompson, P., Mather, M., Nelson, M. Guevara, A., Teran, E., & Longo, V. (2017). Brain structure and function associated with younger adults in growth hormone receptor-deficient humans. Journal of Neuroscience, 1929-16

Nashiro, K., Sakaki, M., Braskie, M. N., & Mather, M. (2017). Resting-state networks associated with cognitive processing show more age-related decline than those associated with emotional processing. Neurobiology of Aging, 54, 152-162. | OSF

Sutherland, M.R., McQuiggan, D.A., Ryan, J.D., & Mather, M. (2017). Perceptual salience does not influence emotional arousal’s impairing effects on top-down attention. Emotion17(4)700-706.

Ycaza Herrera, A., Hodis, H., Mack, W., & Mather, M. (2017). Estradiol therapy after menopause mitigates effects of stress on cortisol and working memory. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism | OSF


Barber, S. J., Opitz, P. C., Martins, B., Sakaki, M., & Mather, M. (2016). Thinking about a limited future enhances the positivity of younger and older adults’ recall: Support for socioemotional selectivity theory. Memory & Cognition, 44, 869-882.

Clewett, D., Lee, T.H., Greening, S., Ponzio, A., Margalit, E., & Mather, M. (2016). Neuromelanin marks the spot: Identifying a locus coeruleus biomarker of cognitive reserve in healthy aging. Neurobiology of Aging, 37, 117-126. | OSF

Doré, B.P., Meksin, R., Mather, M., Hirst, W., & Ochsner, K.N. (2016). Highly accurate prediction of emotions surrounding the attacks of September 11, 2001 over 1-, 2-, and 7-year prediction intervals. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 145, 788-795.

Greening, S., Lee, T.H., & Mather, M. (2016). Individual differences in anticipatory somatosensory cortex activity for shock is positively related with trait anxiety and multisensory integration. Brain Sciences, 6(1). | OSF

Herrera, A. Y., Nielsen, S. E.,, & Mather, M. (2016). Stress-induced increases in progesterone and cortisol in naturally cycling women. Neurobiology of Stress, 3, 96-104. | data filesOSF

Martins, B., Sheppes, G., Gross, J. J., & Mather, M. (2016). Age differences in emotion regulation choice: Older adults use distraction less than younger adults in high intensity positive contexts. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences. | data files | OSF

Martins, B., & Mather, M. (2016). Default mode network and later-life emotion regulation: Linking functional connectivity patterns and emotional outcomes. In A. D. Ong & C. E. Lockenhoff, Emotion, Aging, and Health, 9-29. PDF

Mather, M. (2016). The affective neuroscience of aging. Annual Review of Psychology, 67, 213-238.

Mather, M. (2016). Commentary: Modulation of Prepulse Inhibition and Startle Reflex by Emotions: A Comparison between Young and Older Adults. Frontiers Aging Neuroscience, 8

Mather, M., Clewett, D., Sakaki, M., & Harley, C.W. (2016). Norepinephrine ignites local hot spots of neuronal excitation: How arousal amplifies selectivity in perception and memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 39. | PDF | Overview and Commentaries

Mather, M., & Harley, C.W. (2016). The locus coeruleus: Essential for maintaining cognitive function and the aging brain. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 20, 214-226.

Mather, M. & Ponzio, A. (2016). Emotion and aging. In L. Feldman Barrett, M. Lewis, & J. Haviland-Jones (Eds.), Handbook of Emotions. pp. 319-335. PDF

Sakaki, M., Yoo, H. J., Nga, L., Lee, T. H., Thayer, J., & Mather, M. (2016). Heart rate variability is associated with amygdala functional connectivity with MPFC across younger and older adults. NeuroImage139, 44-52. | OSF


Barber, S. J., Mather, M., & Gatz, M. (2015). How stereotype threat affects healthy older adults’ performance on clinical assessments of cognitive decline: The key role of regulatory fit. The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 70, 891-900.

Greening, S. G., & Mather, M. (2015). How arousal influences neural competition: What dual competition does not explain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 38, e77.

Herrera, A. Y., & Mather, M. (2015). Actions and interactions of estradiol and glucocorticoids in cognition and the brain: Implications for aging women. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 55, 36-52.

Hirst, W., Phelps, E. A., Meksin, R., Vaidya, C. J., Johnson, M. K., Mitchell, K. J., Buckner, R. L., Budson, A. E., Gabrieli, J. D. E., Lustig, C., Mather, M., Ochsner, K. N., Schacter, D., Simons, J. S., Lyle, K. B., Cuc, A. F., Olsson, A. (2015). A ten-year follow-up of a study of memory for the attack of September 11, 2001: Flashbulb memories and memories for flashbulb events. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 144, 604-623.

Lee, T. H., Greening, S. G., & Mather, M. (2015). Encoding of goal-relevant stimuli is strengthened by emotional arousal in memory. Front. Psychol., 6:1173. files | OSF

Martins, B., Ponzio, A., Velasco, R., Kaplan, J., & Mather, M. (2015). Dedifferentiation of emotion regulation strategies in the aging brain. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 10, 840-847.

Mather, M. (2015). Emotional memory. In S. K. Whitbourne (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Adulthood and Aging, 1-4.

Nielsen, S.E., Barber, S. J., Chai, A., Clewett, D. V., & Mather, M. (2015). Sympathetic arousal increases a negative memory bias in young women with low sex hormone levels. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 62, 96-106. filesOSF

Nielsen, S.E., & Mather, M. (2015). Comparison of two isometric handgrip protocols on sympathetic arousal in women. Physiology and Behavior, 142, 5-13. | data files | OSF

Sutherland, M.R., & Mather, M. (2015). Negative arousal increases the effects of stimulus salience in older adults. Experimental Aging Research, 41, 259-271.


Barber, S. J., & Mather, M. (2014). Stereotype threat in older adults: When and why does it occur, and who is most affected? To appear in P. Verhaeghen & C. Hertzog (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Emotion, Social Cognition, and Everyday Problem Solving During Adulthood. PDF

Barber, S. J., & Mather, M. (2014). How retellings shape younger and older adults’ memories. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 26, 263-279.

Braver, T. S., Krug, M. K., Chiew, K. S., Kool, W., Westbrook, J. A., Clement, N. J., Adcock, R. A., Barch, D. M., Botvinick, M. M., Carver, C. S., Cools, R., Custers, R., Dickinson, A. R., Dweck, C. S., Fishbach, A., Gollwitzer, P. M., Hess, T. M., Isaacowitz, D. M., Mather, M., Murayama, K., Pessoa, L., Samanez-Larkin, G. R., Somerville, L. H. (2014). Mechanisms of motivation-cognition interaction: Challenges and opportunities. Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience.

Clewett, D., Bachman, S., & Mather, M. (2014). Age-related reduced prefrontal-amygdala structural connectivity is associated with lower trait anxiety. Neuropsychology.

Clewett, D.,* Luo, S.*, Hsu, E., Ainslie, G., Mather, M., & Monterosso, J. (2014). Increased functional coupling between the left fronto-parietal network and anterior insula predicts steeper delay discounting in smokers. Human Brain Mapping. *co-first authors

Clewett, D. V., & Mather, M. (2014). Not all that glittered is gold: neural mechanisms that determine when reward will enhance or impair memory. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 8:194.

Clewett, D., Schoeke, A., Mather, M. (2014). Locus coeruleus neuromodulation of memories encoded during negative or unexpected action outcomes. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 111, 65-70. | PDFOSF

Dolcos, F., Wang, L., & Mather, M. (2014). On opposing effects of emotion on cognition: Current research and emerging directions. Frontiers Integrative Neuroscience.

Greening, S. G., Lee, T. H., & Mather, M. (2014). A dual process for the cognitive control of emotional significance: Implications for emotion regulation and disorders of emotion. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8:253.

Lee, T. H., Baek, J., Lu, Z.L., & Mather, M. (2014). How arousal modulates the visual contrast sensitivity function. Emotion. | PDFdata filesOSF

Lee, T. H., Sakaki, M., Cheng, R., Velasco, R., & Mather, M. (2014). Emotional arousal amplifies the effects of biased competition in the brain. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience. filesOSF

Ponzio, A., & Mather, M. (2014). Hearing something emotional influences memory for what was just seen: How arousal amplifies effects of competition in memory consolidation. Emotion. | data files | OSF

Sakaki, M., Fryer, K., & Mather, M. (2014). Emotion strengthens high priority memory traces but weakens low priority memory traces. Psychological Science, 25(2), 387-395. | data filesOSF

Sakaki, M., Kuhbandner, C., Mather, M., & Pekrun, R. (2014). Memory suppression can help people “unlearn” behavioral responses — but only for non-emotional memories. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. | PDFdata filesOSF

Sakaki, M., Ycaza, A. E., & Mather, M. (2014). Association learning for emotional harbinger cues: When do previous emotional associations impair and when do they facilitate subsequent learning of new associations? Emotion. files | OSF


Barber, S. J., & Mather, M. (2013). Stereotype threat can enhance, as well as impair, older adults’ memory. Psychological Science, 24, 2522-2529.

Barber, S. J., & Mather, M. (2013). Stereotype threat can reduce older adults’ memory errors. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66, 1888-1895.

Clewett, D., Schoeke, A., & Mather, M. (2013). Amygdala functional connectivity is reduced after the cold pressor task. Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience. | PDF | abstract and supplementary materialOSF

Gorlick, M. A., Giguere, G., Glass, B. D., Nix, B. N., Mather, M., & Maddox, W. T. (2013). Attenuating age-related learning deficits: Emotional valenced feedback interacts with task complexity. Psychology and Aging, 13, 250-261.

Knight, M., & Mather, M. (2013). Look out–it’s your off-peak time of day! Time of day matters more for alerting than for orienting or executive attention. Experimental Aging Research, 39, 305-321. filesOSF

Lighthall, N. R., Gorlick, M. A., Schoeke, A., Frank, M. J., & Mather, M. (2013). Stress modulates reinforcement learning in younger and older adults. Psychology and Aging, 28, 35-46. | PDF | data filesOSF

Mather, M., Cacioppo, J. T., & Kanwisher, N. (2013). Introduction to the special section: 20 years of fMRI–What has it done for understanding cognition? Perspectives on Psychological Science, 8, 41-43. PDF

Mather, M., Cacioppo, J. T., & Kanwisher, N. (2013). How fMRI can inform cognitive theories. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 8, 108-113.

Mather, M., & Nga, L. (2013). Age differences in thalamic low frequency fluctuations. NeuroReport, 24, 349-353.

Nashiro, K., Sakaki, M., Huffman, D., & Mather, M. (2013). Both younger and older adults have difficulty updating emotional memories. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 68, 224-227. | data files | OSF

Nashiro, K., Sakaki, M., Nga, L., & Mather, M. (2013). Age-related similarities and differences in brain activity underlying reversal learning. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 7:37.

Sakaki, M., Nga, L., & Mather, M. (2013). Amygdala functional connectivity with medial prefrontal cortex at rest predicts the positivity effect in older adults. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 25, 1206-1224. | OSF


Barber, S. J., & Mather, M. (2012). Forgetting in context: The effects of age, emotion, and social factors on retrieval-induced forgetting. Memory & Cognition, 40, 874-888.

Lee, T.H., Itti, L., & Mather, M. (2012). Evidence for arousal-biased competition in perceptual learning. Frontiers in Emotion Science, 3:241 filesOSF

Lighthall, N. R., Sakaki, M., Vasunilashorn, S., Nga, L., Somayajula, S. Chen, E. Y., Samii, N., & Mather, M. (2012). Gender differences in reward-related decision processing under stress. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 7, 476-484.

Mather, M. (2012). The emotion paradox in the aging brain. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1251, 33-49.

Mather, M, & Lighthall, N. R. (2012). Risk and reward are processed differently in decisions made under stress. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21, 36-41. | PDF

Mather, M., Mazar, N., Gorlick, M. A., Lighthall, N. R., Burgeno, J., Schoeke, A. & Ariely, D. (2012). Risk preferences and aging: The “Certainty Effect” in older adults’ decision making. Psychology and Aging, 27, 801-816. | data file | OSF

Mather, M. & Sutherland, M. (2012). The selective effects of emotional arousal on memory. Psychological Science Agenda.

Nashiro, K., Sakaki, M., & Mather, M. (2012). Age differences in brain activity during emotion processing: Reflections of age-related decline or increased emotion regulation? Gerontology, 58, 156-163. | PDF

Nashiro, K., Sakaki, M., Nga, L., & Mather, M. (2012). Differential brain activity during emotional vs. non-emotional reversal learning. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 24, 1794-1805. | OSF

Sakaki, M., & Mather, M. (2012). How reward and emotional stimuli induce different reactions across the menstrual cycle. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 6, 1-17.

Sakaki, M., Niki, K., & Mather, M. (2012). Beyond arousal and valence: The importance of the biological versus social relevance of emotional stimuli. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 12, 115-139. | Supplementary materials | OSF

Sutherland, M. R., & Mather, M. (2012). Negative arousal amplifies the effects of saliency in short-term memory. Emotion, 12, 1367-1372.


Feng, M. C., Courtney, C. G., Mather, M., Dawson, M. E., & Davison, G. C. (2011). Age-related affective modulation of the startle eyeblink response: Older adults startle most when viewing positive pictures. Psychology and Aging, 26, 752-760.  | PDF

Ko, S. G., Lee, T. H., Yoon, H. Y., Kwon, J. H., & Mather, M. (2011). How does context affect assessments of facial emotion? The role of culture and age. Psychology and Aging, 26, 48-59. file | data variables

Mather, M., & Schoeke, A. (2011). Positive outcomes enhance incidental learning for both younger and older adults. Front. Neurosci., 5:129.

Mather, M., & Sutherland, M. R. (2011). Arousal-biased competition in perception and memory. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6, 114-133. | PDF

Nashiro, K., & Mather, M. (2011). The effect of emotional arousal on memory binding in normal aging and Alzheimer’s Disease. American Journal of Psychology, 124, 301-312. | data filesOSF

Nashiro, K., & Mather, M. (2011). How arousal affects younger and older adults’ memory binding. Experimental Aging Research, 37, 108-128. | data files | OSF

Nashiro, K., Mather, M., Gorlick, M. A., & Nga, L. (2011). Negative emotional outcomes impair older adults’ reversal learning. Cognition & Emotion, 25, 1014-1028. | PDFdata files | OSF

Nielsen, L., & Mather, M. (2011). Emerging perspectives in social neuroscience and neuroeconomics of aging. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 6, 149-164.

Sakaki, M., Gorlick, M. A., & Mather, M. (2011). Differential interference effects of negative emotional states on subsequent semantic and perceptual processing. Emotion, 11, 1263-1278. | data filesOSF

Sakaki, M., Niki, K., & Mather, M. (2011). Updating existing emotional memories involves the frontopolar/orbitofrontal cortex in ways that acquiring new emotional memories does not. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23, 3498-3514. | PDF | OSF


Mather, M. (2010). Aging and cognition. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 1, 346-362. PDF

Mather, M., Lighthall, N. R., Nga, L., & Gorlick, M. A. (2010). Sex differences in how stress affects brain activity during face viewing. NeuroReport, 21, 933-937. PDF


Hirst, W., Phelps, E. A., Buckner, R. L., Budson, A. E., Cuc, A., Gabrieli, J. D. E., Johnson, M. K., Lyle, K. B., Lustig, C., Mather, M., Meksin, R., Mitchell, K. J., Ochsner, K. N., Schacter, D. L., Simons, J. S., Vaidya, C. J. (2009). Long-term memory for the terrorist attack of September 11: Flashbulb memories, event memories, and the factors that influence their retention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 138, 161-176.

Knight, M., & Mather, M. (2009). Reconciling findings of emotion-induced enhancement and impairment of preceding items. Emotion, 9,763-781.

Kryla-Lighthall, N., & Mather, M. (2009). The role of cognitive control in older adults’ emotional well-being. In Berngtson, V., Gans, D., Putney, N., & Silverstein, M. (Eds.), Handbook of Theories of Aging, 2nd Edition, Springer Publishing, 323-344. PDF

Lighthall, N. R., Mather, M., & Gorlick, M. A. (2009). Acute stress increases sex differences in risk seeking in the Balloon Analogue Risk Task. PLoS ONE. | PDFOSF

Mather, M. (2009). When emotion intensifies memory interference. Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 51, 101-120. PDF

Mather, M., Gorlick, M. A., & Lighthall, N. R. (2009). To brake or accelerate when the light turns yellow? Stress reduces older adults’ risk taking in a driving game. Psychological Science, 20, 174-176. | PDF

Mather, M., Gorlick, M. A., & Nesmith, K. (2009). The limits of arousal’s memory impairing effects on nearby information. American Journal of Psychology, 122, 349-370. | PDF

Mather, M., & Sutherland, M. (2009). Disentangling the effects of arousal and valence on memory for intrinsic details. Emotion Review, 1, 118-119. | PDF

Novak, D. L., & Mather, M. (2009). The tenacious nature of memory binding for arousing negative items. Memory & Cognition, 37, 945-952. PDF


Mather, M., & Knight, M. (2008). The emotional harbinger effect: Poor context memory for cues that previously predicted something arousing. Emotion, 8, 850-860. PDFOSF

Mather, M., & Nesmith, K. (2008). Arousal-enhanced location memory for pictures. Journal of Memory and Language, 58, 449-464. PDF


Henkel, L. A., & Mather, M. (2007). Memory attributions for choices: How beliefs shape our memories. Journal of Memory and Language, 57, 163-176. PDFOSF

Kennedy, Q., & Mather, M. (2007). Aging, affect and decision making. In K.D. Vohs, R.F Baumeister, & G. Loewenstein (Eds.), Do Emotions Help or Hurt Decision Making? A Hedgefoxian perspective (pp. 245-265). New York, Russell Sage Foundation Press. PDF

Knight, M., Seymour, T. L., Gaunt, J. T., Baker, C., Nesmith, K., & Mather, M. (2007). Aging and goal-directed emotional attention: Distraction reverses emotional biases. Emotion, 7, 705-714. PDF

Mather, M. (2007). Emotional arousal and memory binding: An object-based framework.  Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2, 33-52. PDF

Novak, D. L., & Mather, M. (2007). Aging and variety seeking. Psychology and Aging, 22, 728-737. PDF

Sison, J. A. G., & Mather, M. (2007). Does remembering emotional items impair recall of same-emotion items? Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14, 282-287. PDF


Budson, A. E.., Mather, M., & Chong, H. (2006). Memory for choices in Alzheimer’s Disease. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 22, 150-158. PDF

Carstensen, L. L., Mikels, J. A., & Mather, M. (2006). Aging and the intersection of cognition, motivation and emotion. In J. Birren & K. W. Schaie (Eds.), Handbook of the Psychology of Aging, 343-362. PDF

Knight, M., & Mather, M. (2006). The affective neuroscience of aging and its implications for cognition. In T. Canli (Ed.), The Biological Bases of Personality and Individual Differences. Guilford Press, 159-183. PDF

Mather, M. (2006). A review of decision making processes: Weighing the risks and benefits of aging. In L. L. Carstensen & C. R. Hartel (Eds.), When I’m 64. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 145-173. Read online | PDF

Mather, M. (2006). Why memories may become more positive with age. In B. Uttl, N. Ohta, & A. L. Siegenthaler (Eds.), Memory and Emotion: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Blackwell Publishing, 135-159. PDF

Mather, M., & Knight, M. R. (2006). Angry faces get noticed quickly: Threat detection is not impaired among older adults. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 61, P54-P57. PDF

Mather, M., Mitchell, K. J., Raye, C. L., Novak, D. L., Greene, E. J., & Johnson, M. K. (2006). Emotional arousal can impair feature binding in working memory. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18, 614-625. PDF | zip file with behavioral data

Mitchell, K. J., Mather, M., Johnson, M. K., Raye, C. L., Greene, E. J. (2006). An fMRI investigation of short-term source and item memory for negative pictures. NeuroReport, 17, 1543-1546. PDF


Mather, M., & Carstensen, L. L. (2005). Aging and motivated cognition: The positivity effect in attention and memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 496-502. PDF

Mather, M., & Knight, M. (2005). Goal-directed memory: The role of cognitive control in older adults’ emotional memory. Psychology and Aging, 20, 554-570. PDF Richard Kalish Innovative Publication Award winner

Mather, M., Knight, M., & McCaffrey, M. (2005). The allure of the alignable: Younger and older adults’ false memories of choice features. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 134, 38-51. PDF

Yoon, C., Laurent, G., Fung, H., Gonzalez, R. Gutchess, A. H., Hedden, T., Lambert-Pandraud, R., Mather, M., Park, D. C., Peters, E., & Skurnik, I. (2005). Cognition, persuasion and decision making in older consumers. Marketing Letters, 16, 429-441. PDF


Kennedy, Q., Mather, M., & Carstensen, L. L. (2004). The role of motivation in the age-related positivity effect in autobiographical memory. Psychological Science, 15, 208-214. PDF

Mather, M. (2004). Aging and emotional memory. In D. Reisberg and P. Hertel, (Eds.) Memory and Emotion. NY: Oxford University Press, 272-307. PDF

Mather, M., Canli, T., English, T., Whitfield, S., Wais, P., Ochsner, K., Gabrieli, J. D. E., Carstensen, L. L. (2004). Amygdala responses to emotionally valenced stimuli in older and younger adults. Psychological Science, 15, 259-263. PDF


Charles, S. T., Mather, M., & Carstensen, L. L. (2003). Aging and emotional memory: The forgettable nature of negative images for older adults. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 132, 310-324. PDF

Mather, M., & Carstensen, L. L. (2003). Aging and attentional biases for emotional faces. Psychological Science, 14, 409-415. PDF | dot probe RT data

Mather, M., & Johnson, M. K. (2003). Affective review and schema reliance in memory in older and younger adults. American Journal of Psychology, 116, 169-189. PDF

Mather, M., Shafir, E., & Johnson, M. K. (2003). Remembering chosen and assigned options. Memory & Cognition, 31, 422-433. PDF

Mitchell, K. J., Johnson, M. K., & Mather, M. (2003). Source monitoring and suggestibility to misinformation: Adult age-related differences. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 17, 107-119. PDF


Lane, S., Mather, M., Villa, D., & Morita, S. (2001). How events are reviewed matters: Effects of varied focus on eyewitness suggestibility. Memory & Cognition, 29, 940-947. PDF


Kixmiller, J. S., Verfaellie, M., Mather, M., & Cermak, L. S. (2000). Role of perceptual and organizational factors in amnesics’ recall of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure: A comparison of three amnesic groups. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 22, 198-207.;1-1;FT198

Mather, M., & Johnson, M. K. (2000). Choice-supportive source monitoring: Do our decisions seem better to us as we age? Psychology and Aging, 15, 596-606. PDF

Mather, M., Shafir, E., & Johnson, M. K. (2000). Misrememberance of options past: Source monitoring and choice. Psychological Science11, 132-138. PDF

Mitchell, K. J., Johnson, M. K., Raye, C. L., Mather, M., & D’Esposito, M. (2000). Aging and reflective processes of working memory: Binding and test load deficits. Psychology and Aging, 15. 527-541. PDF

1999 and earlier

Mather, M., Johnson, M. K., & De Leonardis, D. M. (1999). Stereotype reliance in source monitoring: Age differences and neuropsychological test correlates. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 16, 437-458. PDF

Mitchell, K. J., Livosky, M., & Mather, M. (1998). The weapon focus effect revisited: The role of novelty. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 3, 287-303. PDF

Cermak, L.S., Mather, M., & Hill, R. (1997). Unconscious influences on amnesics’ word-stem completion. Neuropsychologia, 35, 605-610. PDF

Johnson, M.K., Nolde, S.F., Mather. M., Kounios, J., Schacter, D.L., & Curran, T. (1997). The similarity of brain activity associated with true and false recognition memory depends on test format. Psychological Science, 8, 250-257. PDF

Mather, M., Henkel, L.A., & Johnson, M.K. (1997). Evaluating characteristics of false memories: Remember/know and memory characteristics questionnaire compared. Memory & Cognition25(4), 826-837. PDF

Cermak, L.S., Verfaellie, M., Lanzoni, S., Mather, M. & Chase, K.A. (1996). The spacing effect on the recall and recognition ability of amnesic patients. Neuropsychology, 10, 219-227. PDF